The Phoenicians, according to ancient authors, were a people who occupied the coast of the Levant in the eastern Mediterranean. Their major cities were Tyre, Sidon, Byblos, and Arwad. Unlike nearby inland states that were defined countries, these cities were fierce rivals and the Phoenicians represented a confederation of maritime traders. Except for Byblos, which had been flourishing as a trade center from at least the 3rd millennium B.C., Phoenician cities developed around 1500 B.C. The Late Bronze Age (1550-1200 B.C.) was a time of prosperity for these trading centers. The massive cultural disruptions that occurred in the Levant about 1175 B.C. apparently had a minimal effect upon the Phoenician coastal centers, which led to a continuity of Phoenician art and culture from the Late Bronze Age until the Hellenistic period around 300 B.C. By the late 8th century B.C. the Phoenicians founded trading outposts around the Mediterranean. Carthage, a Phoenician colony founded in 814 B.C., became one of their largest cities and eventually powerful enough rival Rome. The main economic resources of the Phoenician cities in the eastern Mediterranean were the cedars of Lebanon and murex snails, which were used to make purple dye. Phoenician artists were skilled in wood and ivory carving, metalworking, and textile production. The works they produced are a fascinating amalgam of a number of cultures, combining Aegean, northern Syrian, Cypriot, Assyrian, and Egyptian elements.
Mesopotamian hemispherical Cup
Phoenician Loop Handled Amphoriskos
Phoenician Steatite Jewelry Mold
Phoenix Ancient Art 2005- No 1 Catalogue
Phoenix Ancient Art 2006- No 1 Catalogue
Phoenix Ancient Art 2006- No 2 Catalogue
Phoenix Ancient Art 2009- No 1 Catalogue
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